私立寄宿高中常用词汇(The Boarding School Glossary)


       ACT (American College Testing 美国大学测试)

       ACT is an acronym for American College Testing program. ACT and the SAT are the two most common college standardized tests in the United States of academic readiness for college level studies.

       AP (Advanced Placement 大学先修课程)

       The Advanced Placement program offers college level courses at high schools across the United States and Canada. Through AP's college-level courses and exams, students can earn college credit and advanced placement, stand out in the admissions process, gain skills that will help them succeed in college, and learn from some of the most skilled, dedicated, and inspiring teachers in the world.

       寄宿学校 Boarding School

       A boarding school is a school where some or all students not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. Most boarding schools also have day students who are local residents or children of faculty. In the United States, boarding schools sometimes comprise grades 7 through 12, but the most reputable cover only the high school years, from the 9th through the 12th grades. Some also feature military training, though this is generally offered only at specialized schools. Many New England boarding schools traditionally offer a post-graduate (See PG in this glossary) year of study in order to help students prepare for college entrance.

       少年团 Cadet

       A cadet refers to a student in a military academy.

       CAP(大学衔接课程 College Articulation Program)

       CAP 是高校升学项目的英文首字母缩写。通过 CAP 取得的大学学分,通过可以转到学生高中毕业后进入的大学。
       CAP is an acronym for College Articulation Program. College credits earned through CAP usually transfer to the institution of higher education in which a student enrolls after graduation from high school.

       划船 Crew

       Crew is the ancient sport of rowing. Rowing in shells is very popular in many boarding schools. Crew is offered in the fall and spring. Schools participate in regional and international competitions called regattas. Events like The Head of the Charles and Henley draw rowers from all over the world.

       舍监 Dorm Master

       A dorm master is a teacher who is in charge of and supervises a residential house of boarding school students. He or she in many ways becomes a surrogate parent providing stability and guidance for the mercurial adolescents in his care.

       ESL(英语作为第二语言 English as a Second Language)

       ESL is an acronym for English as a Second Language. ESL refers to the use or study of English by speakers with a different native language. ESL teachers are highly skilled, certificated professionals who understand what students who are not native English speakers need to learn English.

       室内运动场 Fieldhouse

       室内运动场是一个术语,描述可以进行篮球、冰球和其它室内运动的场地。 许多寄宿制学校的室内运动场和其他体育设施可以和高校相竞争。周三下午和周六全天一般寄宿学校中规定的体育运动时间。
       A fieldhouse is a term which describes an indoor sports arena where basketball, ice hockey and other indoor sports are held. The fieldhouses and other athletic facilities at many boarding schools rival those found at many colleges and universities. Wednesday afternoons and all day Saturday are set aside for sports as a rule in boarding schools.

       GPA(平均学分绩点 Grade Point Average)

       室内运动场是一个术语,描述可以进行篮球、冰球和其它室内运动的场地。 许多寄宿制学校的室内运动场和其他体育设施可以和高校相竞争。周三下午和周六全天一般寄宿学校中规定的体育运动时间。
       GPA是平均学分绩点首字母缩写,是北美最常用的一个教育词汇。在美国,成绩一般用字母来表示:A(最高等级,优秀),B(高于平均水平),C(平均),D(通常是最低及格线)和F(不及格)。此外,多数学校计算出 学生的平均成绩点数(GPA),给每个字母等级分配一个数字,用数学公式算出代表学生成绩的数值。一般来说,美国学校中数值为4.0等同于于A级。 在指定的课程中要获得特定的成绩所需的比例,以及GPA的分配每所学校都不一样。最普遍和常见的等级换算表如下:
       GPA is an acronym for Grade Point Average, an educational term most commonly used in North America. In the United States, grades are generally assigned by a letter: A (highest grade, excellent), B (above average), C (average), D (usually the minimum passing grade), and F (fail). Additionally, most schools will calculate a student's grade point average (GPA) by assigning each letter grade a number and using a mathematical formula to come up with a numerical representation of a student's work. Generally, American schools equate an A with a numerical value of 4.0. The percentage needed in any given coursework needed to achieve a certain grade and the assignment of GPA point values varies from one school to another.

       校长 Headmaster

       Headmaster or the head teacher is a British term for a high school principal or chief administrator of a high school. It is commonly used in older, more traditional schools.

       荣誉课程 Honors courses

       Honors courses are classes which offer more rigorous and in-depth coursework to especially talented and driven students. They are classically offered in the high school environment, and they are usually open to sophomores, juniors, and seniors. In order to sign up for an honors course, a student typically will need to demonstrate talent, motivation, and a strong record in basic courses in the same subject. These classes can offer bright students a chance to flourish in the school environment.In recognition of the fact that honors courses can be more demanding, many schools weight their honors courses in calculations of grade point average, scoring these classes slightly higher. This can allow especially motivated students to climb above the theoretically top 4.0 grade point average, which can be utilized as an example of the student's high level of skill and competencyin college applications.

       宿舍 House

       House is another British term which has immigrated to American boarding schools. It describes a physical grouping of students in a residential or boarding facility. It is the essence of the boarding school ethos as it is houses which provide the structure and social framework within which adolescents interact, compete and enjoy a range of social activities.

       国际文凭 IB (International Baccalaureate)

       IB is an acronym for International Baccalaureate. This is a curriculum which is used at a couple of dozen American boarding schools. The curriculum is modeled by a hexagon with six academic areas surrounding the three core requirements. The six academic areas are: language A1 (the student’s first language), second language, individuals and societies, experimental sciences, mathematics and computer science, and the arts. The three core requirements are: (1) the student needs to write up an extended essay to investigate a topic of interest; (2) the student needs to take the interdisciplinary theory of knowledge (TOK) course to explore the nature of knowledge across all disciplines; and (3) the student needs to participate in the school’s Creativity, Action, Service (CAS) program to get involved in artistic pursuits, sports and community services.

       常春藤预备学校联盟 (The Ivy Preparatory School League IPSL)

       The Ivy Preparatory School League (IPSL) is a consortium of top New York City private schools.

       独立学校入学考试 (The Independent School Entrance Examination ISEE)

       ISEE or Independent School Entrance Examination is a standardized entrance exam used by many independent schools in the United States. The ISEE has three levels: the Lower level, for entrance in grades 5-6; Middle level, for entrance in grades 7-8; Upper level, for entrance in grades 9-12. All levels consist of five sections: Verbal Reasoning, Quantitative Reasoning, Reading Comprehension, Mathematics Achievement, and a 30-minute essay section. The test is approximately three hours long in total, including time for two breaks.

       独立学校联盟 (The Independent School League ISL)

       The Independent School League (ISL) is composed of sixteen New England preparatory schools that compete athletically and academically. Founded in 1948, the ISL's sixteen member compete in eighteen sports in the New England Prep School Athletic Conference (NEPSAC). The Independent School League is the oldest Independent School athletic association in the United States.

       美国全国独立学校协会 (The National Association of Independent Schools NAIS)

       美国全国独立学校协会(NAIS)是一个关于美国独立教育的会员组织。该组织代表美国约1400所独立学校和协会,与国外的独立学校也有联系。 NAIS 领导学校,也是学校的信息中心,推动学校在人员、环境、全球化、课程和财政等方面的可持续性发展。
       The National Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) is a membership organization and the national voice of independent education. NAIS represents approximately 1,400 independent schools and associations in the United States, and affiliates with independent schools abroad as well. NAIS leads and serves schools as the center of a network of information and ideas that propel good schools toward becoming great schools, characterized by demographic, environmental, global, programmatic, and financial sustainability.

       (毕业后)学年 (Postgraduate PG)

       Each year a small number of students graduate from private schools and then decide to stay on for another year before heading off to college. This extra year is called a PG or postgraduate year. A postgraduate year gives students some extra time to strengthen academic skills, to participate in sports and to prepare for college admissions testing.

       预备 (Prep)

       Prep is short form for preparatory. In the United States, it refers to K-12 schools with a college preparatory curriculum. The term comes from the mission of schools which are devoted to preparing their students for the rigorous academic work to be encountered at the college level.

       滚动录取 (Rolling Admissions)

       Rolling admissions means that a school has no fixed admissions deadline.


       SAT(原名是学术能力测试和学术评估测试)是美国大学入学标准化测试。SAT由美国一家非盈利组织-大学理事会拥有、出版和制定,曾经 由美国教育考试服务中心(ETS)开发、发行和评分。目前该测试由ETS管理。美国大学理事会声称,该测试可以判断学生是否可以进入高校。目前SAT测试需要三小时四十五分钟,费用是45美金(国际学生是71美元 ),不包括迟交费用。自1901年开始引入这种测试,其名称和得分已经修改了好几次。 2005年,测试更名为“SAT推理测验”,可能的分数从600到2400,包括三个部分(数学,批判性阅读和写作),每个部分的测试结果最多为800分,另外还有单独评分的部分。
       The SAT Reasoning Test (formerly Scholastic Aptitude Test and Scholastic Assessment Test) is a standardized test for college admissions in the United States. The SAT is owned, published, and developed by the College Board, a non-profit organization in the United States, and was once developed, published, and scored by the Educational Testing Service (ETS). ETS now administers the exam. The College Board claims that the test can determine whether or not a person is ready for college. The current SAT Reasoning Test takes three hours and forty-five minutes and costs $45 ($71 International), excluding late fees. Since the SAT's introduction in 1901, its name and scoring have changed several times. In 2005, the test was renamed to the "SAT Reasoning Test" with possible scores from 600 to 2400 combining test results from three 800-point sections (math, critical reading, and writing), along with other subsections scored separately.


       The SSAT or Secondary Schools Admissions Test is the most widely used standardized admissions test by private schools throughout the world. The test consists of a short essay and multiple choice aptitude questions. The aptitude testing concentrates on math, reading comprehension and the use of language. While the SSAT is offered several times a year, most students take the tests in November and December in order to meet the application deadlines of most schools in January.

       寄宿学校协会(The Association of Boarding Schools TABS)

       寄宿学校协会(TABS)是大学预备学校和寄宿学校的公开机构,也是寄宿学校教育的核心资源。该协会为美国、加拿大和其它国家约300多所寄宿学校服务。TABS 作为学校和学生之间的桥梁,积极支持寄宿学校的需求,为家庭提供寄宿学校的信息和意见。
       The Association of Boarding Schools (TABS) is the public voice for college-preparatory boarding schools and the central resource for boarding school education. TABS serves roughly 300 boarding schools across the United States, Canada, and abroad. Serving as a bridge between schools and students, TABS actively supports the needs of boarding schools and provides information and insight to families about the benefits of a boarding school environment.

       托福 (TOEFL)

       TOEFL or Test of English as a Foreign Language is a test for non-native speakers of English to determine their ability to deal with English. English as a foreign language courses are offered as special programs at many independent schools.


       SLEP 是Secondary Level English Proficiency Test的缩写,即中学英文程度测验。SLEP考试的目的是考核母语为非英语的国际学生(non-native speaker)的英语听力和阅读理解能力。试卷由位于美国新泽西州普林斯顿市“教育考试服务中心”(ETS)提供。SLEP考试设立于1980年,至今已有二十多年的历史。SLEP考试是中学英文老师判断国际学生英文程度的重要依据。美国有五百多所中学及小区学院采用 SLEP 成绩做为外籍学生入学与分班的参考。提供SLEP成绩的学生,学校通常不需要学生再提供TOEFL成绩。

       制服 (Uni)

       Uni is boarding school slang for 'uniform'. Uniforms and dress codes are an integral part of boarding school culture.